This marble statue of the goddess Athena was found at the Villa of the Papyri in Ercolano. A colossal bronze statue of Athena in this pose was set up (by Pericles) beside the Parthenon (the Temple of Athena) on the Acropolis of Athens, from which she takes her name (or vice versa).
When the Apostle Paul visited Athens, his spirit was provoked within him when he saw that the city was given over to idols. (See Acts 17:16.) He even found an altar with this inscription: "TO THE UNKNOWN GOD." (See Acts 17:23.)